Part 12 - Part 11
Human Intelligence is making a gradual, yet scintillatingly definite, impression upon the Conscious Awareness of the relatively few who dared to embrace it's immensity. Thankfully, a snowball is beginning to roll and build as ever more intellects awaken to the potential of the influence available to Human Beings. On this page we take further glimpses of Great Minds in action.
Outstanding Thinking Produces Outstanding Results
Well into the renaissance, that major advance in our capability to observe the Heavens, the Telescope, a clever combination of spectacle lenses, patiently waited to be discovered for maybe two and a half centuries.
When the Telescope finally made it's public appearance in the early 17th Century, it was an instant hit.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) An Italian born Mathematician, Inventor, and Scientist, is well known for his support of Nicolaus Copernicus.
A Brilliant Intellect recognized for daring resistance to the mind crippling Attitude
and demands of the non Thinkers who held power over the masses at that
time, was aware of the power available to the human mind.
Galileo suffered loss of freedom for refusing to agree with the non Thinker's fanciful views of the Universe. Curtailed freedom did not deter this man in his Scientific Endeavors to seek, and find, Truth.
Power obsessed Humans can detain, or even destroy, the intelligent men and women who oppose their stultifying retrogressive attitude.
But the one thing power seeking control freaks cannot do, and which happens to be the thing they are most afraid of, is prevent a Thinker from Thinking.
Neither can one person force another to curtail their Thinking, without an individuals express approval.
It is our great fortune that Galileo was well aware of this crucial to progress Reality.
continued his mind expanding efforts to learn about Nature through the
course of his confinement, and although he was not the Inventor of the
Telescope, this man, in common with all capable men and women, was not
short of Human Intelligence and Mind Resources.
Galileo wanted a more powerful scope than anything available, so he built one. He is credited with being the first to purposely point a telescope at the sky. With the intention of learning Truth.
With the aid of the Telescope, Galileo
vindicated his Copernican views. He studied craters on Earth's Moon.
And he discovered four of Jupiter's Moons. Jupiter has, to date, sixty
seven moons. The four largest, which Galileo discovered, are referred to
as Galilean Satellites.
Considering how demonstrative and candid he happened to be, can you imagine his response to the ruthless, mind crippling, hierarchy impeding his search for Truth, if he had had access to the Hubble Telescope at his disposal to support and record his observations?
Astronomy was merely one of Galileo's magnificent obsessions. Along with Mathematics, he was also conversant with Mechanics. Among his many diverse inventions and discoveries are the Thermometer, the Theory of the Motion of Falling Bodies, and the first known Harmonic Oscillator, the Pendulum.
Galileo's Harmonic Oscillator was to be of intense interest to Christiaan Huygens, whom we meet next.
Dutch born polymath, Christiaan Huygens, (1629-1695) bade farewell to the challenges this World offers on the blurry cusp of the Renaissance and Enlightenment. He was a socially well connected Physicist and Mathematician.
Huygens was another Problem Solver who understood the influence of his greatest asset, his Mind.
He was a brilliant Thinker who contributed much to the Discipline of Mechanics. An Inventor worthy of note, he furnished Humanity with the most accurate Mechanical clock ever.
Huygens achieved this intellectual feat when he applied the Principle of Oscillation to a timepiece, employing the Galileo discovery, the Pendulum.
He effected the necessary Cognitive breakthrough, that, for the purpose of accurate timekeeping, the Pendulum needed to follow a Cycloidal Arc.
A Pendulum in motion demonstrates a symmetrical beat while describing a Circular Arc, but does not maintain a perfectly equal swing. Thus rendering it not suitable for accurate timekeeping.
Christiaan Huygens superb Thinking delivered a superb Insight, that delivered a Tool of immeasurable value to Science, and to Humanity in general.
Receiving progressive development and improvement, the Pendulum Cock would remain the most accurate means of defining time for the best part of three hundred years.
As happened with the rein of Steam, the rein of the Pendulum Clock was superseded by the Intuitive Thinking ability of Great Minds, who humbly delved into the secrets of Nature, and were rewarded with discoveries of stupendous proportion.
In the instance of the Pendulum Clock it was the discovery of the Crystal Oscillator in the late 1920s, and the construction of the Atomic Clock in 1949.
Christiaan Huygens was a fellow of The Royal society.
How Discoveries Are Exploited Is A Matter For Our Collective Moral Conscience To Consider
The Royal Society was founded
in the United Kingdom, and sanctioned by King Charles the second. This
association is a fellowship of elected peers from the Scientific
Community in Commonwealth countries, and foreign members from around the
World. Humans who are at the cutting edge in all fields of Science.
Instituted in 1660, its doors never closing, figuratively speaking, has, today, more than 1400 dedicated Scientific Method practitioners as members.
Italian born Giovanni Cassini,
(1625-1712) also a Fellow of the Royal Society, as were many of the
luminaries mentioned on this Website, was a man of numerous talents.
Mathematician, Engineer, and Tutor, among others.
Giovanni was a dedicated observer of the heavens, who calculated the distance from Earth to Mars, accurately. In doing so, he laid the groundwork necessary to scale our Solar System.
Cassini employed the Parallax Method and his astute Human Intelligence to obtain his desired measurements.
The Parallax Method of measurement, is error prone, even in the hands of a competent user.
Giovanni Cassini was meticulous as well as competent and his painstaking efforts enabled an early picture of distances to Celestial Bodies. Laying the foundation for the phenomenally accurate ground and space based measuring instruments Astronomers have at their disposal today.
Cassini's one time assistant, Danish Astronomer Olé Roemer, (1644-1710), produced the first credible calculation of the speed of Light, based in part on Cassini's work.
The other- essential - part was based on Olé Roemer's Mindful Attitude, observant nature, and his capacity to employ his Human intelligence to Think. Yet, even this approach does not guarantee one will attain Truth.
Roemer and Cassini disagreed as did many Scientists, at that time, and earlier, concerning the speed of Light.
Giovanni Cassini was of the opinion that Light must be instantaneous. This opinion appears to have been the dominant viewpoint. Including Aristotle and Descartes.
Olé Roemer, as did Isaac Newton, believed the speed of Light to be finite, and proved it so.
The actual speed though, would remain in doubt for the next one hundred years. While other Scientists came close, it would take the invention of another Tool, the Interferometer, to measure the speed of Light precisely.
Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931) was born in the erstwhile Kingdom of Prussia, his family emigrating to a new Life in America, when he was two years old, was an American Naval Officer, brilliant Physicist, Nobel Prize winner and talented Inventor.
Albert invented the interferometer in the late nineteenth century and settled the speed of Light argument for ever.
He refined his invention over the next several years and obtained the most accurate measurement of the speed of Light, via optical means, to date.
Albert's device has inspired many other useful instruments based on using Interference to accurately measure the speed of Light and other Waves.
So useful, in fact, that recently - 2015 - utilizing the Principle Of Interference, years of Scientific and Engineering effort, expended to detect the infinitesimally weak Gravitational Waves predicted by Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity in the early stages of the twentieth century, were rewarded with the discovery of their existence.
Gravitational waves open a brand new way
of observing the Universe. We can now study and examine the Universe by
listening. As well as observing via Optical means, and Electro-magnetic
This new capability to Listen to the Universe will enable Humans to discover phenomena that would otherwise remain out of reach of our Conscious Observation.
This much anticipated discovery and confirmation of the existence of Gravitational Waves was duly accomplished using an Earthbound Observatory.
At the same time as the earthbound observatory discovery, a Space Mission capable of conducting experiments using a Laser Beam Interferometer with a sensitivity of one Picometer was launched.
One picometer is one trillionth of a meter.
If these experiments work and more Gravitational Motion is detected,
then a self-contained space observatory will be constructed to exploit
this milestone in Humanities ongoing exploration of our Universe and
We can enjoy the privilege of being in the unique position of witnessing the emergence of an exhilarating new Scientific Discipline. If funded adequately, this author has no doubt that these intellectually intrepid men and women embracing this fascinating endeavor will follow through and attain their desired goals. On purpose.
There must be no doubt. Simple or complex, Nature will reveal her secrets when we apply our Human intelligence to Her satisfaction
Such is the immensity of the Human Mind.
Human Intelligence Rocks!
Part 12 - Part 11
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